|Adler, M., "Meccano
||Online description of a demonstration torque amplifier
standard Meccano parts.
|Amble, O., "On a principle of
Connexion for Bush Integrators," Journal
Scientific Instruments, 23,
||A survey of regenerative connections of one or two
integrators, by which it is possible to obtain functions
such as the
logarithm, square root, or any rational power.
|Anon., "Sir William Thomson's
Analyser," Engineering, 30,
||A description of a seven integrator version of William
Thomson's harmonic analyser (see Thomson
|Anon., "With the Editor. Meccano
Scientific Research," Meccano
||A one page introduction to a following article Anon. (1934B) discussing the Manchester
analyzer and Bush's prototype at MIT.
|Anon., "Machine Solves
Problems. A Wonderful Meccano Mechanism," Meccano
Magazine, XIX, 6,
||A good article, with many excellent pictures of both the Manchester
analyzer and Bush's prototype at MIT. A short
extract from this is reproduced in Wright
Today by Professor Harold L. Hazen," The MIT
Tech, LIV, 9, 1, 1934.
||Describes a servo mechanism designed to follow a curve on
differential analyzer input table. Can be found online
here: P1, P4.
|Anon., "A Diligent Machine," The
Manchester Guardian, 25 Jan 1934, p 8.
||A curious short column commenting on the report Anon (1934E) later in the same
|Anon., "A Calculating Machine
by Curves for Manchester University," The
Manchester Guardian, 25 Jan
1934, pp 9-10.
||More than a full column devoted to the full scale analyzer
being built for Manchester University, describing in
layman's terms the
kinds of applications it would be used for.
|Anon. "Differential Analyser at
Manchester University," Engineering,
140, 3268, 88-92, 1935.
||A description of the Metropolitan-Vickers
machine at Manchester. Includes good pictures
including the digital
revolution counters and time interval camera.
|Anon., "Differential Analyser for
University of Manchester," Nature,
135, 535, 1935.
||A brief column reporting on the opening ceremony for the
|Anon., "The Differential
Analyser," The Engineer,
160, 4149, July 19 & 26,
||An excellent two part article describing the mechanical
principles and construction of the differential analyzer.
|Anon. "The Differential Analyser
Electrical Engineering," Nature,
||A review of the two papers Hartree
(1938C) and Hartree
|Anon., "The Electro-Mechanical
MIT.'s Differential Analyzer Advances Science by Freeing it
Pick-and-Shovel Work of Mathematics," LIFE,
||A brief article with outstanding pictures describing the
Rockefeller differential analyzer at MIT.
1949-50, pp 44-45.
||Contains a brief mention of Prof. J. C. Cooke's Meccano
differential analyzer; specifically that it then had three
with a fourth planned.
Meccano Calculating Machine. Solving Complex Mathematical
Equations," Meccano Magazine,
XXXVI, 1, 11,
||A one page article describing the Meccano differential
analyzer built by Prof. J. C. Cooke at the University of
|Anon., "Mechanical Differential
Analyser with SKF Bearings," The
#3, 67-72, 1953.
||Description of the Chalmers University DA, with excellent
pictures. This machine is unusual in having the interconnect
vertically with integrators hanging below. The
is also unconventional.
|Anon., "Differential Analyser," The GMM
Series of Modern Supermodels No. 4, London: The
||The first set of model building instructions published for
Meccano model of Bush's differential analyzer.
Washington," USC University
Bulletin, 26, 13,
Jan 23, 1978.
|Reports on the
the UCLA differential analyzer. It was sent to the
where it remains in storage.
|Anon. "Among the Model Builders,"
Meccano Magazine, 58, 3,
||Reports on the rediscovery of the Cambridge Meccano
analyzer in New Zealand at MOTAT. Includes a
picture reproduced from the New Zealand Herald (Anon
(1973B)). The text is somewhat confused as to the
|Anon., "Toy Used to Build 'Brain
in 1930s," New Zealand Herald,
||A brief report on the rediscovery of the Cambridge Meccano
analyzer and its installation at MOTAT. Includes a
good picture with Dr. Whale, which is reproduced in Anon (1973).
|Anon., "Computer Display," Museum
News, MOTAT, Sep. 1973.
||A brief report on the then new computer display at MOTAT, featuring
the Cambridge Meccano
|Anon., "Among the Model Builders,"
Meccano Magazine, 59,
2, 36, 1974.
||A follow up article reproducing a letter from a Mr.
who was a laboratory assistant working under the direction
of A Porter
operating a Meccano differential analyzer at the Air Defence
Research Establishment, Malvern in 1942. It is unclear
machine he refers to.
|Anon. "New Computer Display,", Museum
News, MOTAT, Sep. 1981.
||A brief report on the recently updated computer display at
article states that at this time the Meccano
analyzer "is still capable of performing calculus."
|Anon., "That Which was Lost has
Found," New Zealand Federation of
Modellers Magazine, 17, 3,
||The editorial reproduces a picture from the New Zealand
Herald of the Cambridge Meccano
analyzer after it was rediscovered at MOTAT. There are
brief notes plus a reproduction of another article from The
June 23, 1993.
|Anon., "Meccano Differential
No.2," New Zealand Federation of
Modellers Magazine, 25, 1,
||Although no author is identified, these notes are edited
from Tee (1993). See also Irwin (2001).
|Ashurst, F. G., Pioneers of
Computing. London: Frederick Muller, 1983.
||An excellent collection of short biographies. Chapter 7 is
devoted to Vannevar Bush and the differential analyzers.
|Asprey, W. (Editor), Computing
Before Computers. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University
||Chapter five "Analog Computing Devices" contributed by
G. Bromley provides a good general survey of analog
devices, from early planimiters, Kelvin's
analyzer, differential analyzers, to modern electronic
analog techniques. The full text is available online here.
|Barton, J. C., Campbell, D. A.,
Read, R. C., "An Analog Method for Studying Multiple
Scattering," Proceedings of the
LXX, 8A, 605-614, 1957.
||This paper describes a simulation of multiple scattering
conducted using a source of random motion "coupled to a
analyser, built in Meccano, which is similar to one built by
Hartree and Porter (1935)."
|Beard, R. E. "The Differential
Analyser" Royal College of Science Journal, 12, 127-138,
||The text of a lecture delivered before the Society on 24
February 1942, describing the basic principles of the
analyzer and including a picture of Beard's own machine.
|Beard, R. E., "The Construction
Small Scale Differential Analyser and its Application to the
Calculation of Actuarial Functions,"
of the Institute of
Actuaries. LXXI (part II), 193-227, 1942.
||A brief description of the machine, with a more extensive
discussion on its application to actuarial work. A summary
ensuing discussion after the paper was presented is also
|Berends, T., "Historic Machine
found by MOTAT,"
New Zealand Herald, 29 June,
||A report on the rediscovery of the Meccano
analyzer at MOTAT.
of the museum, who states that it will
be restored and displayed in a prime position in the
|Berry, T. M., "Polarized-Light
System," AIEE Transactions,
||Description of the photo electric follower system used on
General Electric differential analyzer (see Kuehni
|Blackett, P. M. S. and
F. C., "An Automatic Curve Follower for the Differential
Analyser," Proceedings of the
Philosophical Society, 35, 494-505, 1939.
||This design uses a photoelectric slope detector, a
arrangement to generate the tangent of an angle, plus an
follow the slope of the curve more smoothly than with the
arrangement of Hazen (1936).
|Boerdijk, Ir. A. H.,
Use of Friction in Torque Amplifiers and Constant Torque
Devices," Constructor Quarterly,
||Describes the principles of the torque amplifier and
torque limiting devices.
M. D., "U.S. Technological Enthusiasm and British
Skepticism in the Age of the Analog Brain," IEEE
Computing, 18, 4, 5-15, 1996.
|This article is
analysis of the British and U.S. differential analyzers from
1945. The author examines the development of the Bush and
analyzers in the context of the U.S. engineering community
British scientific community. Includes many interesting
H., The Differential Analyser,
mathematical theory of set-ups with several free inputs both
topological and an analytical point of view using the theory
Pfaffian systems. It was developed independently of Shannon (1941). It is very
the practicalities of actual machine operation.
|Bush, V., "The Differential
A New Machine for Solving Differential Equations," Journal of the
Franklin Institute, 212, 447-488, 1931.
||Bush's original paper giving a detailed account of the
differential analyzer built at MIT in 1930.
|Bush, V., and Caldwell, S. H., "A
Type of Differential Analyzer," Journal
the Franklin Institute, 240,
||A lengthy paper describing the very large scale second
generation machine at MIT (the Rockefeller DA). This system
extensive use of shaft angle encoders and servo motors,
mechanical integrators to be interconnected electrically
matrix of telephone switching relays rather than though
shafting, and programmed from punched paper tape.
|Bush, V., Pieces
York: William Morrow and Company, 1970.
||Bush's autobiography. Contains only brief mention of
the differential analyzer work.
|Cairns, W. J., Crank, J., and
Lloyd, E. C., "Some Improvements in the Construction of a
Differential Analyser and a Review of Recent Applications,"
Research Department Theoretical Research Memo. No. 27/44,
National Archives reference DEFE 15/751 C20779.
||Describes improvements made to the Cambridge model to
reliability and usability: stronger output arms in the
amplifiers, lighter integrator discs, clutches in the lead
drives, and a double input table similar to Hartree's for
problems. Applications described include problems in heat
explosive detonations, and transmission line simulations.
|Campbell, S. M. "Beatrice
Worsley: Canada's Female Computer Pioneer," IEEE Annals of the
Computing, 25, 4,
||A short biography of Beatrice Worsley. Includes a brief
mention of the Meccano differential analyzer she built over
a 6 week
period in the summer of 1948.
|Cook, A. C., and Maginniss, F.,
"More Differential Analyzer Applications." General
8, 14-20, 1949.
||This paper is a follow up to Maginniss
(1945), reporting on eight more engineering
applications of the
General Electric analyzer. The front cover of this issue has
excellent picture of the analyzer.
Problems," Transactions of AIEE,
devices added to the GE differential analyzer. These incluse
follower, vector summation device, sinusoid generator,
N. (ed.), Making of the Modern
London: John Murray, 1992.
highlighting 100 key inventions from the collections of the
Science Museum. Includes a beautiful picture of Hartree's
|Cresswell, J., MOTAT:
(Inc.), Auckland, New
||Almost too late, a small group of enthusiasts joined
in an attempt to preserve the remaining relics of New
transport and engineering history. The result of their
the subject of this book. The Meccano
analyzer is discussed on p102.
|Croarken, M., Early Scientific
Computing in Britain, Oxford: Oxford Science
||Chapter 5 is devoted to a discussion of the Manchester and
Cambridge differential analyzers
M., "The Emergence of Computing Science Research and
Cambridge, 1936-1949," IEEE
Annals of the History of Computing, 14, 4,
motivation behind the creation of the laboratory. It
period during which both the model and full scale
analyzers were installed and operated.
|Croarken, M., "Computing in
Britain During World War II," IEE History of
Meeting 6th July 2002,
||Includes a discussion of the use of the Manchester and
Cambridge differential analyzers for military calculations.
very extensive set of references.
|Crank, J., The
||An excellent introduction by the person in charge of
operation of the full
analyzer in the Mathematical Laboratory at the
University of Cambridge. Includes many pictures and diagrams
fairly detailed account of the construction of the Meccano
|Cundy, H. M., and Rollett, A. P,.
Mathematical Models, Oxford:
University Press, 1961.
||Brief description of the principles of Bush's differential
analyzer. Mentions the possibility of Meccano
|Dalton, J., "Continuing the Saga
the Differential Analyser," Meccanoman's
Newsmag, #68, 1994.
||Reports on an interview with Maurice Wilkes on the early
history of the Cambridge Meccano differential analyzer.
|Darwin, C. G., "Douglas Rayner
Hartree 1897-1958," Biographical
Fellows of the Royal Society,
4, 103-116, 1958.
||An excellent short biography of Hartree. Includes a
bibliography listing his published works.
|Eames, C., and Eames, R. A., Computer
Perspective, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
||This book is based on an exhibition conceived and
for IBM, displaying aspects of the intellectual and
environments in the sixty years leading up to the modern
computer. Page 119, titled "Meccano and Quantum
devoted to the Manchester Meccano differential analyzer.
N. R., "Meccano in the Classroom," Mathematical
Gazette, 54, 389, 282-283, Oct
|A short article
describing a two
integrator Meccano differential analyzer with no torque
used for educational purposes.
|Fail, R., "Electro-mechanical
for Differential Analyser," Meccanoman's
Journal, #12, 310,1968.
||A rudimentary electro-mechanical servo design to replace a
|Fail, R., "Mini Differential
Analyzer," Midlands Meccano Guild
||A small demonstration model from standard Meccano parts
full construction details. Two integrators and output table.
electro-mechanical servos instead of torque amplifiers.
|Fischer, C. F., "Reminiscences at the end of the Century,"
Molecular Physics, 98,
||A collection of auto-biographical notes including an
interesting discussion of the author's work as a research
Hartree around the time he was building the first Meccano
analyzer. Available online here.
|Fischer, C. F., Douglas Rayner Hartree
- His Life
in Science and
Computing, Singapore: World Scientific, 2003.
||This scientific biography of Douglas R. Hartree not only
describes important events in his life but also outlines his
contributions to a number of fields. Hartree was very
in the process of computation. When he learned of a
analyzer for solving differential equations, he first built
|Ford, H. C., "Mechanical Movement"
United States Patents 1,317,915, 1,317,916, 1919.
||The disk/ball/cylinder integrator used by Hannibal Ford in
military fire control systems. I am not aware of this type
integrator ever being used in a differential analyzer, but
it has the
advantage of being able to transmit substantial torque
requiring a torque amplifier. The second patent has a
capable of even greater loading.
|Gray, E., "The Torque Amplifier,"
Zealand Federation of Meccano Modellers Magazine,
||An unusual application of the torque amplifier to amplify
outputs of servo motors in a motor chassis.
|Hartree, D. R., F.R.S., and
Porter, A., "The Construction and Operation of a Model
Analyser," Memoirs and Proceedings
Manchester Literary &
Philosophical Society, 79, 51-74, 1935.
||A detailed account of the construction and operation
analyzer at Manchester University including a number
of photographs of the machine.
|Hartree, D. R., F.R.S., and
Ingham, J., "Note on the Application of the Differential
Calculation of Train Running times," Memoirs
and Proceedings of the
Manchester Literary & Philosophical Society,
83, 1-15, 1938.
||An interesting paper on a relatively simple second order
equation. Although the work was done on the full scale
reference is made to the fact this would be a suitable
analyzer described in Hartree
|Hartree, D. R., "The
Integration of Differential Equations," Mathematical
||A comprehensive account of the construction and
of the Manchester
analyzers with a good close up photograph of the
integrators of the full scale machine.
|Hartree, D. R, and Nuttall, A.
"The Differential Analyser and its Application in Electrical
Engineering," Journal of the
Electrical Engineers, 83,
||A fairly detailed account of the Metropolitan-Vickers
machine with good pictures, including of the special
input table. A
somewhat briefer section discusses actual applications.
|Hartree, D. R., and Porter,
"The Application of the Differential Analyzer to transients
Distortionless Transmission Line," Journal
the Institution of
Electrical Engineers, 83, 648-656, 1938.
||Examines the behavior of transients on a finite
distortionless transmission line. This problem required use
special input table that can feed back a solution after a
Application to lightening arresters is discussed.
|Hartree, D. R., "The
Kelvin Lecture: Mechanical Integration in Electrical
of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, 90,
||Lecture delivered before The Institution on 29, April,
After a brief description of the differential analyzer
mention of Kelvin's contribution) details solutions to
in electrical engineering obtained using the machine.
|Hartree, D. R., "Differential
Analyser," Ministry of Supply
Records of Research and
Development No. 17-502, 1946/9.
||A detailed account of the use of the Manchester
analyzer during the war. Probably the largest
applications gathered in a single document. Section
other differential analyzers in the UK, including Meccano
|Hartree, D. R., F.R.S., Calculating
Instruments and Machines, Urbana: University of
||An extensive discussion of differential analyzers with
photographs including the Meccano
analyzer described in Hartree
(1935). Includes a chapter on its application to partial differential equations. There
suggestion for the solution of a set of nonlinear
equations for a problem in spherical, sound waves remarkable
in that it
uses no integrators, just an intricate interconnection if
output tables and multiplier/divider units. Extensive
|Hartree, D. R., "The Bush
Differential Analyser and its Applications," Nature,
||A general description of the differential analyzer.
the title, the pictures are actually of the Metropolitan-Vickers
machine at Manchester.
|Hartree, J., and Tee, G., "Toy
Story," New Scientist, 4
||Letters to the editor discussing the differential
in response to the question from a reader as to whether any
inventions or principles owe their discovery to the use of
Available online here.
|Hazen, H. L., Jaeger, J. J., and
Brown, G. S., "An Automatic Curve Follower," Review
Instruments, 7, 353-357, 1936.
||Describes an automatic curve follower using a photocell,
servo motor, and torque amplifier, which can follow the
boundary of a curve on an input table. See also Blackett (1939).
|Heffron, W. G., "Operation and
Application of the Differential Analyzer," Product
Engineering, 23, 4,
||General description of the operation of a differential
analyzer with particular reference to the General Electric
|Hey, T., The Quantum Universe,
||A brief reference to Hartree's atomic structure
including a picture of Hartree and Porter with the Meccano
|Hogle, H., "Torque Amplifier," Canadian MeccaNotes, 6, 19, June
||An unusual torque amplifier design in Meccano parts.
not sensitive enough for use in a differential analyzer.
|Holst, P. A., "Svein Rosseland
the Oslo Analyzer," IEEE Annals of the
Computing, 18, 4,
||At one time the Oslo analyzer was the world's largest;
technically advanced, highly accurate, and used by
physicists from around the world. A discussion of the
and the man who created it.
|Irwin, W., "Differential Analyser
2," New Zealand Federation of
Modellers Magazine, 25, 2, 2001.
||Letter to the editor identifying the source of the article
the preceding issue (Anon (2001))
reporting on more recent efforts to restore the Meccano
analyzer at MOTAT.
|Irwin, W., "Differential
Myths," New Zealand Federation of
Modellers Magazine, 25, 3,
||A short piece exposing a number of myths circulating about
Meccano differential analyzers.
|Irwin, W., "The Differential Analyzer Explained,"
Federation of Meccano Modellers Magazine, 26, 3,
||Describes the principles of operation of a differential
analyzer. Illustrated with a picture of an earlier
machine by the current author and the Science Museum exhibit
integrator from the Meccano
analyzer described in Hartree
(1935). Available online here.
|Irwin, W., "Meccano Differential
Analyser . . . and New Zealand's First Computer," The International
Meccanoman, #46, IX.2005.
||An account of the differential analyzer exhibits at the
NZFMM Easter Convention in Auckland, New Zealand, which
restored section of the Cambridge
machine and the author's version of the model in
Fail (1993) .
|Irwin, W., "Differential
Adding Unit," New Zealand
Meccano Modellers Magazine, 31,
6, 8-9, 2007.
||Details of the adding unit used in the original Cambridge
Meccano differential analyzer together with a modern
|Irwin, W., "Propagation of an
Legend, a Differential Analyser Myth," New
Zealand Federation of Meccano
Modellers Magazine, 31, 6, 14-15, 2007.
||Debunks the myth that the Cambridge
Meccano differential analyzer was used by Barnes
Wallis for the
design of the "bouncing bomb".
W., "The Cambridge Meccano Differential Analyser No.2," The Driving Wheel, 5: The
Museum of Transport and Technology Society, 2013.
||An account of the history of,
and the full restoration of the Cambridge
Meccano differential analyzer at MOTAT.
A. S., Analog Computation,
electronic analog machines, this book includes a concise
|Janssen, E., and Lebell, D.,
"Applications of the Mechanical Differential Analyzer to
70, 432-435, 1951.
||Applications for the differential analyzer to magnetic
amplifiers, pulse transformers and electron accelerators.
|King, D., "Historic Computer Lost
Zealand Herald, section 4, page 5, April 20, 1993.
||A half page report on the loss of the Meccano
analyzer from MOTAT.
of it in the museum's former computer display.
|King, D., "Heritage Rusts to Bits
Rain," New Zealand Herald,
page 5, April 27, 1993.
||Another report on the events surrounding the loss of the Meccano
analyzer from MOTAT.
|Kuehni, H. P., and Peterson, H.
"A New Differential Analyzer," AIEE
Transactions, 63, 5, 221-228
(discussion 429-431), 1944.
||Detailed technical description of the General Electric 14
integrator differential analyzer which used a Polaroid
system on the integrators. The follower system is
described in Berry (1944).
A., "Sur un
équations différentielles ordinaires," Bulletin de
l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de
St.-Pétersbourg, Ser. V, T.XX, 1, Jan. 1904.
||In this little
Kryloff describes a machine based on the work of Thompson (Thompson (1876A)), but using
different integrators. It is unclear if the machine
successful as the paper was written while it was still under
construction. This paper is in French.
|Lennard-Jones, J. E.,
Wilkes, M. V., and Bratt, J. B., "The Design of a Small
Analyser," Proceedings of
Philosophical Society, 35,
||A detailed description of the construction and testing of
analyzer at Cambridge University. In an early
test using four integrators, the wave equation of the
hydrogen atom was
solved giving the value of the ground state energy correct
to one part
|Lowe, I., "Ancient Computer Down
Out," New Scientist, 138,
15 May 1993. (May not appear in
||A follow up to articles in the New Zealand Herald (King (1993A) and King
(1993B)) reporting on the loss of the Cambridge Meccano
analyzer from MOTAT.
|Macauley, T., "Operating the
Meccano Differential Analyser,", unpublished, MOTAT,
New Zealand, 1978.
||A brief operating manual for the Meccano differential
analyzer at MOTAT
which indicates that it was in operation in 1978 for
demonstrations. One of the 5 integrators was not
Analyzer Applications,", General
Review, 48, 5, 54-59, 1945.
||A discussion of eight applications of the differential
analyzer to engineering problems and the techniques used to
|Marsh, P., "The Meccano Set
Computer," New Scientist,
(supplement 28-29), 1978.
||A popular article on the history of the Manchester
|Massey, H. S. W., Wylie, J.,
Buckingham, R. A., and Sullivan, R., "A Small Scale
Analyser - Its Construction and Operation," Proceedings
Academy, 45A, 1, 1-21, 1938.
||A four integrator machine. All the spur gears used
this machine are of Meccano manufacture. Helical gears
sprockets are from Bond's. Everything else is of custom
paper contains some excellent pictures.
|Michel, J. G. L., "Extensions in
Differential Analyzer Technique," Journal
Scientific Instruments, 25,
10, 357-361, 1948.
||In this paper, a constructive technique is developed for
obtaining the results arrived at by Amble
from analytical considerations. The technique is extended to
the integral of a quotient, and the inversion of functions.
that one of these techniques was applied on the Cambridge Meccano
|Michel, J. G. L., "Errors of
Friction Wheel Integrators," Journal
Scientific Instruments, 32, 2,
||Analyzes the error inherent in a wheel and disk integrator
whenever there is sliding motion of the wheel. This error is
approximately proportional to the torque which must be
applied to the
|Mindell, D. A., Between Human and
Machine - Feedback, Control, and Computing Before
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.
||Mindell shows how the modern sciences of systems emerged
disparate engineering cultures and how they converged during
Chapter 5, Analog Computing at MIT, is devoted to the work
|Myers, D. M., and Blunden, W. R.,
C.S.I.R.O. Differential Analyser," Proceedings
Machines, Sydney Australia, 1951.
||A description of the construction of a 10 integrator
differential analyzer at the University of Sydney. This
electrical interconnections between the units using a system
"M-type" transmission. Foe a more detailed account,
see Myers (1952).
|Myers, D. M., and Blunden, W. R.,
C.S.I.R.O. Differential Analyser," Journal
the Institution of
Engineers, Australia, 24, 195-204, Oct-Nov, 1952.
||A more comprehensive description of the C.S.I.R.O.
than given in Myers (1951).
includes a section on applications to which the instrument
|Nieman, C. W., "Bethlehem Torque
Amplifier," American Machinist,
21, 895-897, 1927.
||Nieman's original description of the torque amplifier,
application to automobile power steering. The caption
figure contains the phrase "adaptable to computing machines"
there is no other mention in the text, and this article
predates Bush's application. See also US patents 1751645, 1751647, and 1751652.
|O'Neill, R., "Meccano 'Dam Busters' computer stars at
16 July, 2007.
||A review of the new computing exhibit at MOTAT
features the recently restored Cambridge Meccano
|Owens, L., "Vannevar Bush and the
Differential Analyzer: The Text and Context of an Early
Culture, 27, 1, 1986, 63-95.
Reprinted in Nyce, J.
M. From Memex To Hypertext, Academic
||Discusses the background to Bush's machines, from
early product integraphs through the mechanical analyzer to
Rockefeller electro-mechanical analyzer.
|Partridge, A., "Torque
Amplifier," Midlands Meccano Guild
||A simple servo based design using a motor and differential
operate electrical contacts.
|Partridge, A., "Torque
Amplifiers," Constructor Quarterly,
19, 40-42, March 1993.
||Constructional details of two torque amplifier designs
|Paynter, H. M., "The
Analyzer as an Active Mathematical Instrument," IEEE Control Systems
Magazine, 9, 7, 3-8, 1989.
||This presentation features the essential role played by
amplification and control in the successful development of
differential analyzer. Mentions the Meccano machines, but
states that their torque amplifiers were made entirely from
|Peierls, R., Bird of Passage,
Princeton University Press, 1985.
||The highly readable autobiography of Rudolf Peierls.
Contains a brief mention of Hartree and the Meccano
analyzer (p104). Peierls was the supervisor of
M. Wood when he was building a Meccano machine at Birmingham
(see Wood (1942)) and on p137 he
machine was never completed.
|Porter, A., "An Approximate
Determination of the Atomic Wave Functions of the Chromium
Atom," Memoirs and Proceedings of
Manchester Literary & Philosophical
Society, 79, 75-81, 1934.
||Presents the results of approximate calculations of the
functions of the chromium atom, carried out on the Meccano
analyzer described in Hartree
|Porter, A., Differential Analyser
Log Book, MS474 London: Science Museum Library.
||Hand written day to day notes recorded from July to
1935 as the full scale analyzer at Manchester was being
These notes make fascinating reading. It would appear that
reliable operation from the machine was very challenging.
A., The Differential Analyser and
Applications, University of
Manchester PhD Thesis, 1936.
in which he
describes both the model and full size machines, including
to handle time-lag problems. He covers in detail
|Porter, A., Introduction to
Servomechanisms, London: Mehuen & Co., 1950.
||This is a general treatment of the theory of
However, the first chapter uses as examples both the
amplifier of the original Bush differential analyzer, and
electromechanical servo system used on the later Rockefeller
|Porter, A., "Building the
Differential Analyzers: A Personal Reflection," IEEE Annals of the
Computing, 25, 2,
||A delightful memoir by one of the pioneers. Written
his 93rd year. This memoir is extracted from chapter 4
of Porter (2004).
|Porter, A., So Many Hills to Climb:
My Journey from Cumbria to North Carolina, Silver
Publications Group, 2004.
||Arthur Porter describes a remarkable life with eloquent
sensitivity and charming candor. Chapter 4 covers his time
Manchester University and the building of the differential
This chapter was in large part reprinted in Porter
|Robinson, T. B., "The
Set Computers," IEEE Control
||A history of the Meccano based small scale differential
|Robinson, T. B., "A
Reconstruction of the Differential Analyzer in Meccano," IEEE Control
Systems Magazine, 25, 4, 84-89, 2005.
||Description of the author's modern reconstruction in
of a differential analyzer based on Bush's prototype.
E., "The Mechanical Differential Analyser: Its Principles,
and Applications," Proceedings of
Institute of Mechanical Engineers,
159, 1948, 46-54 and 62-80.
|This is a review
contributes nothing original. It is followed by a record of
discussion which ensued when it was presented, in which A.
a blistering attack for both its lack of originality and for
arbitrary change in notation which Rose adopted. It is
by miscellaneous communications relating to mechanical and
|Rosseland, von S.,
Integration von Differentialgleichungen," Die
44, 729-735, 1939.
||A description of the 12 integrator full scale machine at
Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Oslo, Norway.
The paper is
|Shannon, C. E., "Mathematical
Theory of the Differential Analyzer," Journal
of Mathematics and Physics,
XX, 4, 1941. Reprinted in Claude E. Shannon, Collected
(ed. Wyner A. D. and Sloane, N. J. A.) Wiley-IEEE Press,
||A heavy duty mathematical analysis of the class of
that can be addressed by the differential analyzer, assuming
the machine has an unlimited number of integrators and
interesting paper, but somewhat remote from the
actual machine operation.
|Small, J. S., The Analogue
Computer in Britain and the USA, 1930-1975 (Studies in the
Science, Technology and Medicine), Routledge, 2001.
||While primarily concerned with electronic analog machines,
chapter 2 provides a good introduction, including Hartree's
of differential analyzers at Manchester. Includes a picture
of the Meccano
analyzer. Extensive references.
|Smillie, K., "People,
and Computers: A Short Memoir," IEEE Annals of the
Computing, 26, 2,
||A biographical memoir which briefly mentions work by Jim
Howland to extend Beatrice Worsley's Meccano differential
1951. Essentially the same material can be found online here and here.
Simulator for a Meccano Differential Analyzer," Vector, 23, 3 2008.
five-integrator differential analyzer simulator implemented
in J and
gives two examples of its use.
|A more extended
version of Smillie (2008a)
line. The simulator code is available
|Smith, P., "Who sez it cannot be
done!," Meccano Engineer,
||A short article with a picture of a one integrator Meccano
constructed by T. Brooker, in which the torque amplifier is
entirely from standard Meccano parts. Probably the
to have done it.
|Soroka, W. W., Analog Methods in
Computation and Simulation, New York: Mc Graw-Hill.
||A comprehensive survey a vast array of both mechanical and
electrical methods current at the time of writing. Includes
material on the differential analyzer with extensive
|Spackman, L., "A Meccano
Differential Analyser," Meccanoman's
||Discussion of the history of the Cambridge Meccano
analyzer in New Zealand.
|Strong, C. L., "The Amateur
Scientist: A plan for an analogue computer that can be built
$50," Scientific American,
||A design for a home built two integrator differential
analyzer with an example application. Construction of the
be greatly simplified by the use of Meccano!
|Schultes, D., "On
Analyzers," April 2004.
||A short essay presenting the development of the
analyzer. In addition to discussing the mechanical machines
a section on the later electronic machines and a short
present day technology.
|Tee, G. J., "Meccano Differential
Analyser No. 2," unpublished notes, 1993.
||Notes on the complex history of the Cambridge Meccano
analyzer, shipped to New Zealand in 1950, almost
dismantled in the 1960's, displayed at MOTAT in the 70's
then lost in 1993 and finally found again in damaged
|Thomson, J., "An Integrating
Machine having a new Kinematic Principle," Proceedings
Society, 24, 262, 1876.
||Description of the ball and disk integrator in which a
rests under gravity between a horizontal cylinder and an
integrator disk thus avoiding the sliding necessary in a
wheel and disk
integrator. Inspired by the work of Prof. James Clark
applied a similar approach to an improved planimeter design.
in Thomson (1879).
|Thomson, Sir W., "An
for Calculating the Integral of the Product of two Given
Functions," Proceedings of the
24, 266, 1876.
||Application of the ball and disk integrator described in Thomson (1876A) to the
evaluation of the
integral of a product of functions. Reprinted in Thomson (1879).
|Thomson, Sir W.,
Integration of Linear Differential Equations of the Second
Variable Coefficients," Proceedings
the Royal Society, 24,
||Sir William Thomson first suggested that the integrators
developed by his brother could be interconnected to produce
of differential equations. The idea was not practical at the
because of the lack of torque amplifiers. Reprinted in Thomson (1879).
|Thomson, Sir W.,
Integration of the General Linear Differential Equation of
with Variable Coefficients," Proceedings
the Royal Society, 24, 271,
||A generalization of the scheme proposed in Thomson (1876C) to equations of
order. Reprinted in Thomson (1879).
|Thomson, Sir W.,
Analyzer," Proceedings of the
||A description of a harmonic analyzer using up to eleven of
the ball and disk integrators described in Thomson (1876A) and the
in Thomson (1876B) where one
functions in the product is a sine or cosine. This machine
was used to
extract the coefficients of a Fourier
series for the purposes of tide prediction. Reprinted
addition dated April, 1879 in Thomson
|Thomson, Sir W., and Tait, P.
G., Treatise on Natural Philosophy,
1, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1879.
||Although a textbook on physics, it contains an Appendix
(curiously called Appendix B' even though it's the only one)
contains reprints of several papers on integrating devices
published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society. See Thomson (1876A), Thomson
(1876B), Thomson (1876C),
Thomson (1876D), and Thomson
|Travis, I., "Differential
Eliminates Brain Fag," Machine
7, 7, 15-18, 1935.
||Description of the ten integrator differential analyzer
at the Moore School of Engineering, University of
machine included two polar input tables.
K. L. and Lindgren N. A., A
Electrical Engineering and
Computer Science at MIT, 1882-1982, Cambridge: MIT
non-technical historical account of four generations of
technology developed under Bush's guidance, from the early
through to the mighty Rockefeller DA.
|Wilkes, M. V., Memoirs of a Computer
Pioneer, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1985.
||Describes his encounter with the Meccano differential
analyzer at Cambridge and how he came to take responsibility
for it. He
also describes the addition of the fifth integrator by Miss
E Monroe in
|Williams, M. R., "UTEC and
The University of Toronto's Computation Centre," Annals of the History
of Computing, 16, 2, 4-12, 1994.
||Contains a brief reference to Beatrice (Trixie) Worsley's
Meccano differential analyzer at the Unversity of Toronto.
There is a
picture of the machine in an early stage of construction..
|Williams, M. R., A History of Computing
Wiley-IEEE Computer Society Press, 1997
||Broad survey of computing history. Chapter 5 covers analog
machines in general with a section on the differential
Mentions the Hartree Meccano
analyzer and has an interesting reference to a Meccano
machine built in Toronto by Beatrice (Trixie) Worsley.
|Winston, B., Media Technology and
History: From the
Telegraph to the Internet, Routledge, 1998
||Contains a brief reference to Hartree's construction of a
differential analyser in Meccano after visiting MIT to see
|Wood, A. M., The
Equation, University of
MSc. Thesis, 1942.
||The design of a small scale machine (6 integrators) built
largely of Meccano parts is described. Torque
integrator carriages are custom built. Because of war time
shortages, only two integrators were completed at the time
was written. A second section describes the solution
equation performed using the Meccano
analyzer at Cambridge University. Peierls
(1985) confirms it was never
|Worsley, B. H., "Construction
Model Differential Analyzer," Worsley
Archives, box 3, folder 10,
Queen's University Archives, Ontario, 1948.
||A memo to Dr. B. A. Griffith, Toronto Computation Center,
dated 10 September, 1948 describing the construction of a
integrator Meccano differential analyzer.
|Worsley, B. H.,
Analyzer," Worsley Archives,
folder 10, Queen's University
Archives, Ontario, undated.
||A set of course notes from the University of Toronto
Department of Physics, for a 4th year practical course using
model differential analyzer. Undated, but must be 1949
because of a reference to Hartree
|Wilson, A. H., "The Binding
of the Hydrogen Isotopes" Proceedings
Society, 34, 365-374, 1938.
||Although fundamentally a paper about nuclear physics, it
interesting because this is the problem which resulted in
of a fifth integrator to the Cambridge Meccano differential
|Wright, G., The Meccano Super Models
(The Hornby Companion Series, Vol. 2), London: New
||Reproduced on p.31 is a small extract from Anon (1934B).